What is Weight Loss?
Asbabsehat Weight loss is a life-long condition in humans. especially after following a diet is consider normal to lose weight, Apart from this, excessive weight loss psychological reason. Stress is one of the causes of weight loss. appetite and weight loss are see together.
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Mourning, divorce, and going out of work, weight loss can be seen for a certain period due to disruption in eating patterns. Some antidepressants cause weight loss.
In other words, drugs used in the treatment of psychological diseases can also be a cause of weight loss. Liver diseases can also cause weight loss. In liver diseases, weight loss and fluid accumulation in the abdomen can be see together.
can also be seen in some periods in life. Weight loss during pregnancy is one of them. Especially in the first trimester, there may be weight loss in case of not being able to eat as a result of nausea.
Weight loss is also common in newborn babies. Newborn babies lose weight in the first 4-5 days and lose 25-30% of their birth weight on average. This is a normal situation. In the following periods, these weights are regained.
However, the condition called unexplained, involuntary weight loss usually indicates an underlying disease.
The weight lost after grieve or experience a change in life usually starts to be regain as soon as the person starts to feel happy and normal. In times like these, psychological support is the best decision. Significant weight loss anorexia or bulimia an eating disorder can also be the result of In eating disorders, weight loss is a direct symptom. People with eating disorders definitely need treatment. Therefore, in cases of unexplained weight loss without a certain change in life, a doctor should definitely be consulted.
Unexplain weight loss has some values on which to base it in general. However, these values do not apply to everyone. Unexplained weight loss can be defined as the unintentional loss of at least 10% or 5% of body weight over a period of 6 to 12 months.
What are the Causes of Weight Loss?
There are many different reasons for weight loss. Other than weight loss for deliberate reasons such as dieting, possible causes of unexplained weight loss can be listed as follows:
Loss of Muscle Mass
Loss of muscle mass is one of the conditions that can cause unexpected and unexplained weight loss. The main symptom of muscle wasting is muscle weakness. In some cases, the limb with muscle mass may appear smaller than the other.
The body builds weight, along with fat mass, muscle, bone, and water. Therefore, muscle loss will directly cause weight loss. Rapid weight loss can be seen in severe muscle loss.
The most common cause of muscle loss is the inactivity of certain muscles for a period of time. The unused muscle undergoes atrophy, that is, it begins to break down on its own. Then there is weight loss. This is especially true for people who do not exercise much in their life, have a desk job or are bedridden. In such cases, exercise and proper nutrition will usually reverse muscle loss and regain weight.
muscle loss Other possible causes include:
- Injuries that cause bone fractures
- rheumatic joint inflammation
- Osteoporosis (Bone loss)
- multiple sclerosis A neurological disease called
- nerve damage
Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid is the name given to the condition where the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than normal. Thyroid hormones control many functions in the body, especially metabolism in the body.
Result of the thyroid gland being overactive and producing excessive hormones , even if the person has a good appetite, they start to lose weight and burn calories. Because the metabolism normally works much faster. In this case, unwanted and unexplained weight loss begins to occur. In hyperthyroidism, other symptoms that usually accompany weight loss are noticed more quickly.
Other symptoms that may occur in this disease can be listed as follows:
- Normally fast and irregular heartbeat
- heat intolerance
- sleep problems
- shaking hands
hyperthyroidism , i.e. the thyroid gland is normally overworked. All of these conditions interfere with the thyroid gland and impair its functioning. These can be listed as follows:
a-) Graves’ disease : poisonous goiter is also known as In this disease, the body’s immune system works abnormally, causing the thyroid gland to work more than normal. Later, after this overwork, the thyroid grows diffusely, that is, in general, a goiter occurs.
b-) Thyroiditis : Thyroiditis is the condition of excessive secretion of thyroid hormones into the blood as a result of inflammation of the thyroid gland for any reason.
c-) Eating too much iodine: Eating excessive amounts of iodine, especially in iodine-deficient areas, can overstimulate the thyroid gland and cause excessive hormone production.
d-) Taking too much thyroid medication: Taking medications containing thyroid hormone in excess directly causes the presence of excess hormone in the blood.
Cancer is a condition in which normal cells in the body divide and multiply excessively by gaining an abnormal character. In unexplained weight loss, the worst scenario, cancer, comes to mind directly. Because cancers can cause an unexplain loss of 10 kilos or more.
Although it can be seen less than other causes of weight loss, it is definitely a situation that should not be skipped. Weight loss is particularly common in cancers of the pancreas, lung, stomach, and esophagus.
Cancer increases inflammation in the body. This causes muscle loss and disrupts hormones that regulate appetite. A growing tumor even accelerates the basal metabolism that exists at rest, causing more energy to be burned than would normally be.
Other than weight loss, early signs of cancer also include:
- skin changes
In particular, type 1 diabetes is one of the causes of abnormal weight loss. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Without insulin, tissues in the body cannot use glucose for energy. This high blood sugar causes Glucose, which is not used much by the kidneys, is excreted through the urine. from the body , excess calories are lost and weight loss occurs.
Type 1 diabetes also causes symptoms such as:
- frequent urination
- blurred vision
- feeling of extreme hunger
Tuberculosis is an infection that mostly affects the lungs, is contagious and can cause sudden weight loss. This infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sudden weight loss and fatigue are the main symptoms of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is popularly tuberculosis known as This infection spreads through the air.
Other symptoms seen in active tuberculosis disease include:
- lasting 3 weeks or longer cough
- chest pain
- bloody sputum
- night sweats
Some people are at greater risk for TB disease. These are people who have conditions that lower their immune system. low body weight, those with substance abuse , those with diabetes, those with leukemia Examples of people at risk are those
Apart from the relatively more common cases of such weight loss, there are other conditions that can cause weight loss. These reasons can cause excessive weight loss as well as a small amount of loss. These can be list as follows:
- a rheumatological disease that affects the joints Rheumatoid arthritis
- Inflammatory bowel diseases
- endocarditis, which is an inflammatory condition of the heart valves and inner layers
- Heart failure
- Eating disorders
Diagnosing Weight Loss
The diagnosis of weight loss is made directly from the patient ‘s history and physical examination . The reason for the patient’s application is usually weight loss that occurs without any reason. In these cases, the physician may perform some tests according to the suspected situation in the patient.
If loss of muscle mass is thought to be the cause of weight loss, the physician asks the patient about old or new injuries, previous diagnoses, and medications use. It evaluates whether these can cause muscle loss in any way. Apart from these.
The following tests can be applied to better detect the situation or to exclude other diseases:
1-) Blood tests
3-) Magnetic resonance imaging (Emar)
4-) Computed tomography (CT) scan
5-) Nerve conduction studies
6-) muscle or nerve biopsy
7-) Electromyography (EMG) evaluating the functioning of muscles and nerves
In the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, first a medical history is taken and a physical examination is perform. Some tests may then be perform to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions. These can be listed as follows:
Cholesterol and Triglyceride Measurement
The physician may request that the cholesterol levels of the person whom he or she thinks have hyperthyroidism be measured. Low cholesterol indicates that the body is burning cholesterol quickly, which can be a sign of a high metabolic rate. Although cholesterol measurement can be used, it is not often preferred for diagnosis. Similar to low cholesterol, low triglycerides can also be a sign of a high metabolic rate.
Measurement of T3 and T4 Hormones
T3 and T4 hormones are hormones produce by the thyroid gland and accelerate metabolism. These hormones can be measure directly in the blood and allow the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism to be made.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Level Test
that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones pituitary gland hormone When thyroid hormone levels are normal or high, TSH should be lower.
With the help of thyroid scintigraphy, the amount of work of the thyroid gland can be measure. In addition, it is determine whether the overactive thyroid gland is a part of the total area or the whole area. By detecting the overactive part, information about the type of hyperthyroidism can be obtain.
the entire thyroid gland and the different formations can reveal He or she may also use ultrasound to determine whether an abnormal mass in the thyroid gland is solid or cystic.
One of the most serious conditions that can cause weight loss is cancer. In the diagnosis of cancer, first of all, the area with cancer is try to be understood by medical history and physical examination. Then, the diagnosis is made with image methods and biopsies about the suspect area. Biopsy is the most definitive method in the diagnosis of cancer. In addition, in some types of cancer, blood tests contribute a lot to the diagnosis process. Some cancer markers can be measure with blood tests.
For the diagnosis of diabetes, the physician first takes a detailed medical history from the person for suspected conditions and performs a physical examination when appropriate. If there are other signs that then suspect a diabetes-relate weight loss, additional tests are perform to pinpoint the condition.
The tests used to diagnose diabetes are blood tests. Fasting blood glucose is measure in the muscle test. If this value is above 126 mg/dl, it makes the diagnosis of diabetes. In cases where the value range is between 100-126 mg/dl, an oral glucose load test is perform. Values above 199 mg/dl as a result of the oral glucose load test are define as diabetes. In addition to these, HbA1c values are measure. This value shows the average of 3-month glucose values.
For the diagnosis of tuberculosis
The physician first takes a medical history from the person and suspects tuberculosis from the symptoms. Then, physical examination will determine whether there is swelling in the lymph nodes. In addition, lung sounds are listen to with a stethoscope. The most widely use diagnostic tool for tuberculosis is a simple skin test. However, blood tests can also be use as a diagnostic tool. PPD skin tests just under the inner skin of the forearm PPD tuberculin is inject Within 48 to 72 hours, a healthcare professional will check for swell at the injection site. A hard, raise red lump means you may have a TB infection. The bump size determines whether the test results are significant.
This skin test cannot provide a perfect diagnosis. Sometimes, it also indicates previous tuberculosis infections rather than the current one. False positives may also occur in people who have recently received a tuberculosis vaccine. Blood tests to detect the presence of tuberculosis can also be perform. These tests can measure the immune system’s response to bacteria.
People with a positive skin test are most likely to have a chest X-ray or CT scan order. With these examinations, it is determine whether there is damage due to tuberculosis in the lungs. If there are signs of tuberculosis on a chest X-ray, the physician may perform some tests by taking sputum samples. Sputum samples are tested for tuberculosis bacteria.